Journal of Experimental Agriculture International http://www.journaljeai.com/index.php/JEAI <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Journal of Experimental Agriculture International (ISSN:&nbsp;2457-0591)</strong>&nbsp;is a multidisciplinary journal in the field of agriculture and biology. The journal publishes original scientific papers, short communications, review articles and case studies. This is a quality controlled, OPEN peer reviewed, open access INTERNATIONAL journal.</p> SCIENCEDOMAIN international en-US Journal of Experimental Agriculture International 2457-0591 Inoculation of Wheat Plants with Pseudomonas spp. and Azospirillum brasilense under Drought Stress http://www.journaljeai.com/index.php/JEAI/article/view/30461 <p><strong>Aims:</strong> To investigate the effect of inoculation and co-inoculation of <em>Pseudomonas</em> spp. and <em>Azospirillum brasilense</em> on the morphophysiological characters of wheat (<em>Triticum aestivum</em> L.) under drought stress conditions.</p> <p><strong>Study Design:</strong> A randomized complete block design was used in a split plot scheme with four replicates. The plots consisted of irrigated and drought conditions. The subplots consisted of control (without inoculation), inoculation of <em>Pseudomonas</em> spp., inoculation of <em>A. brasilense</em> and co-inoculation of <em>Pseudomonas</em> spp. + <em>A. brasilense</em>. Liquid inoculant was used for two bacteria.</p> <p><strong>Place and Duration of Study:</strong> Agricultural Experimental Area of the Federal University of Santa Catarina, Campus of Curitibanos, SC, Brazil, between July and October 2018.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> Inoculation was performed at the time of sowing. Water deficit was characterized by irrigation suppression after plant emergence, considering a 25-day period without significant rainfall. At the end of the water restriction period, SPAD (Soil Plant Analysis Development) index and morphologic parameters of wheat plants was determined.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Drought stress decreased dry matter accumulation of wheat plants, in terms of number of tillers, above ground dry matter and root-shoot ratio. Inoculation or co-inoculation with <em>Pseudomonas</em> spp. and <em>A. brasilense </em>did not affect plant growth. Under drought stress, SPAD index was higher in plants co-inoculated with <em>Pseudomonas</em> spp. and <em>A. brasilense.</em></p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Although maintains SPAD index of wheat plants under drought stress, inoculation and co-inoculation with <em>Pseudomonas</em> spp. and <em>A. brasilense</em> do not influence the morphological characters of wheat plants.</p> Samuel Luiz Fioreze Magaiver Gindri Pinheiro Yriá Dias Pereira Sonia Purin da Cruz ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-03-07 2020-03-07 1 7 10.9734/jeai/2020/v42i230461 Vegetative Propagation of Himatanthus sucuuba (Spruce ex Müll. Arg.) Woodson by Stem Cuttings http://www.journaljeai.com/index.php/JEAI/article/view/30462 <p>The vegetative propagation by cuttings can be an advantageous alternative to the production of <em>Himatanthus</em> <em>sucuuba</em> seedlings because it allows the obtention of a large number of plants genetically identical to the matrix plant in a shorter time and space. However, such a technique is simultaneously influenced by different factors that can compromise its success. In this sense, the present study aimed to evaluate the effect of different types of cuttings and indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) concentration, on the survival and rooting of cuttings of <em>H. sucuuba</em>. The experimental design used was in randomized complete blocks, with a factorial arrangement: 2 types of cuttings (with and without leaves) and 3 concentrations of IBA (0, 1000 and 3000 mg L<sup>–1</sup>). After 100 days, were evaluated the following variables: survival (%), rooting (%), number of roots per cutting, length of the largest root (cm), number of leaves and dry biomass. The data were subjected to analysis of variance (ANOVA) and means compared by Tukey’s test at p &lt; 0.05. The survival and rooting percentages were higher than 70% in all treatments. There was no significance for the interaction of the factors analyzed, neither for the effect of AIB, analyzed in isolation. The type of stake exerted the greatest influence, with emphasis on the cuttings with leaves, which stood out in most of the factors analyzed. The propagation of <em>H. sucuuba </em>to cuttings was considered viable, and the maintenance of the leaves, associated with juvenility of the propagules, was determining factors in the conditions in which this study was developed.</p> Rayssa Gomes Vasconcelos Raquel da Silva Medeiros Daniel da Silva Paulo de Tarso Barbosa Sampaio ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-03-10 2020-03-10 8 15 10.9734/jeai/2020/v42i230462 Morphological and Structural Diversities of Indigenous Mycorrhiza Communities Associated to Castor Bean from Adamawa Cameroon http://www.journaljeai.com/index.php/JEAI/article/view/30466 <p>This study describes the diversity of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) that enter into association with castor bean growth wild in Subsaharan Africa. Three sites of castor bean stands were selected in each of the three Subdivisions (Ngaoundere I, Ngaoundere II and Nyambaka) of the Vina Division in Adamawa Cameroon. Soil samples and roots were taken from each castor bean rhizosphere. All samples from one site were mixed into a composite sample. Leek was used as trap plant. Mycorrhizal parameters, spores density and specific richness were determined following to the standard methods. After spore extraction, species identification was obtained through the informations provided by the International Vesicular Mycorrhizal fungi collection. Results indicate that Cameroonian castor bean accession was found to be symbiotic with AMF under Sudano-Guinean climate of Adamawa Cameroon. The morphological and structural characterization enabled the description of six AMF species, belonging to three genera: <em>Glomus fasciculatum, Glomus </em>sp1, <em>Glomus </em>sp2, <em>Scutellospora calospora,&nbsp; Scutellospora purpurasens,</em> <em>Entrophospora infrequens. </em>These findings open opportunities for domestication and application of AMF for a sustainable castor bean productivity.</p> Lucien Tatchum Tchuenteu Abba Maimouna Olivia Wafo Youmbi Clautilde Megueni ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-03-11 2020-03-11 16 24 10.9734/jeai/2020/v42i230466 Efficiency of the Adapted Automatic Row Hoe for Weed Control in Organic Soybean http://www.journaljeai.com/index.php/JEAI/article/view/30467 <p>The objective of the present study was to evaluate the row hoe model CHOPSTAR®, the mechanical control of weeds in between the rows of soybean implanted in organic direct sowing system, associated with the camera-guided system. Two experiments were carried, being that in the first experiment an experimental design with sub-subdivided plots with four replicates. The plots corresponded to two soybean varieties (‘Embrapa BRS 284’ and ‘Coodetec CD 216’), the subplots corresponded to the sowing densities of 329.2 and 574.6 thousand plants ha<sup>-1</sup>; and the sub-subplots corresponded to four managements of weeds: one mechanized hoe (2 days after sowing – DAS), two mechanized hoes (22 and 47 DAS), one control manually hoed and other control without hoeing. In the second experiment a randomized block design in subdivided plots with three replicates was used. The plots corresponded to two soybean varieties (‘BRS 284’ and ‘DF 2353’), the subplots constituted of different times when the hoes were made, being: one (14 DAS); two (7 and 21 DAS; two (14 and 28 DAS); three (7, 14 and 28 DAS); besides one control manually hoed up to 28 DAS. In the first experiment it was observed that the automatized hoe was efficient in controlling the weeds and it was necessary only one mechanized hoe (22 DAS) for the ‘BRS 284’ independent of the sowing density, while for the ‘CD 216’ the number of mechanized hoes depended on the sowing density. In the second experiment, it was necessary only one mechanized hoe (14 DAS) to avoid production losses in the varieties ‘BRS 284’ and ‘DF 2353’. The automatized hoe is an alternative to control weeds in areas of organic soybean in direct sowing system, however, damages to the crop can occur depending on the sowing density, mainly in the late management of the mechanized hoe.</p> Emerson Fey Neumárcio Vilanova da Costa Silvio Douglas Ferreira Vitor Gustavo Kuhn Anderson Marcel Gibbert Hiago Canavessi ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-03-13 2020-03-13 25 36 10.9734/jeai/2020/v42i230467 Protective Effect of Ethanolic Extract of Spirulina platensis on Reproductive Characteristic and Biochemical Profile in Female Guinea Pig (Cavia porcellus) Exposed to Lead Acetate http://www.journaljeai.com/index.php/JEAI/article/view/30468 <p>The effect of ethanolic extract of <em>Spirulina platensis </em>(EESP) on reproductive function of female guinea pigs exposed to oxidative stress induced by lead acetate was explored. 60 mature female guinea pigs were used. They were divided into 6 groups of 10 guinea pigs each. For 3 months, pigs in Groups 1 were orally given distilled water daily; Group 2 were treated with lead; Group 3: received lead acetate and Vitamin C while Groups 4,5 and 6 were given lead acetate with 50, 100 and 200 mg of EESP/kg.bw respectively by gavage. At the end of trial (90 days), 6 female pigs per group were sacrificed and some reproductive characteristics, oxidative stress and hepatic toxicity markers were evaluated. Results revealed that, exposure to Lead acetate induced a significant decrease (p &lt; 0.05) of fertility index, reproductive organs and hormone concentrations. It equally led to a significant (p &lt; 0.05) decline of serum content in superoxide dismutase, catalase and total peroxidase activities. The reverse effect was noted in malondialdehyde concentration, hepatic and renal toxicity biomarkers. Histological examination of the ovaries of lead treated females revealed lesions and severe degenerative changes in the structures of the ovaries. However, the administration of ethanolic extract of <em>Spirulina platensis</em> to treated females alleviated the toxicity of reproductive function and oxidative damage induced by lead acetate. In conclusion, the exposure of animals to lead acetate had negative effects on guinea pig reproductive characteristics. The co-exposition to lead acetate and ethanolic extract of <em>Spirulina platensis </em>however, reestablishes normal reproductive characteristic values.</p> Deutcheu Nienga Sorelle Ngoula Ferdinand Tchoffo Herve Mabou Nguemo Jeasmine Laura Vemo Bertin Narcisse Tchoumboue Joseph ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-03-14 2020-03-14 37 46 10.9734/jeai/2020/v42i230468 Evaluation of Cassava Genotypes for Agronomic Performance, Correlation with CMD and CBSD Parameters and Stability across Alupe, Kakamega and Kibos in Western Kenya http://www.journaljeai.com/index.php/JEAI/article/view/30469 <p>Cassava (<em>Manihot esculenta</em> Crantz) production in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) is constrained by the two biotic constraints namely, cassava mosaic disease (CMD) and cassava brown streak disease (CBSD). The aim of this study was to evaluate elite cassava genotypes for variation in agronomical traits, correlate them to CMD and CBSD parameters and identify stable genotypes in Alupe, Kakamega and Kibos in Western Kenya. Twenty three (23) elite cassava genotypes that had shown resistance to either one or both of CMD and CBSD in Eastern Africa were evaluated. The trial was conducted using an alpha lattice balanced design with twenty three (23) genotypes, replicated three times at Alupe, Kakamega and Kibos in Western Kenya for an extended cropping cycle between 2016 and 2017. Results showed significant differences (<em>P ≤ 0.05</em>) between genotypes and location (or agro-ecology), but not interaction (<em>P ≥ 0.05</em>), for all the agronomic performance parameters evaluated. All the 23 cassava genotypes evaluated across the three locations had mean cyanide potential levels ranging from of 3.00–6.00 and were therefore, sweet and not bitter. The significant but negative relationship between CMD and CBSD incidence and severity with agronomic performance implied that their relationship was inverse. Confirmation of stability for agronomic performance was achieved through AMMI analysis, using AMMI stability value (ASV). Stable genotypes based on AMMI stability values (ASV) for fresh root yield across Alupe, Kakamega and Kibos were KBH/2002/066, Kibandameno (a local standard check), NASE-18, Kizimbani and NASE-3. These genotypes need to be further evaluated in more environments to assess their wider adaptability and stability.</p> L. N. Navangi S. M. Githiri E. M. Ateka E. Kanju T. L. Munga S. Tumwegamire R. M. Otsyula P. O. Kwena V. W. Woyengo J. Malinga L. O. Okitoi ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-03-14 2020-03-14 47 62 10.9734/jeai/2020/v42i230469 Woody Plants Species Composition and Diversity in West Bank Forest of International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA) Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria http://www.journaljeai.com/index.php/JEAI/article/view/30470 <p>Woody plants species composition, richness, dominance and diversity in west bank forest of International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA) was undertaken to understand the status of the forest. The analysis of tree species composition, richness and diversity in the forest was carried out with the aim of developing efficient management plan that will ensure biodiversity conservation. Vegetation survey using transects and plot sampling techniques were used to collect data for the study. Three transects of 500 m long each {A (270°W), B (90°E) and C (180°S)} were constructed with the aid of prismatic compass in the forest. 10 sampling plots of 10 m by 10 m each were demarcated along each transect making a total number of 30 sampling plots. In each plot, all woody plant species (trees and shrubs) with girth at breast height (gbh) greater than or equal to 10 cm (gbh ≥ 10 cm) were identified, enumerated and measured. The results showed that 581 woody plants belonging to 65 species and 28 families were encountered in the forest. The most abundant family in the forest was Fabaceae sub families of Caesalpinioidea, Mimosoideae and Palpilinoideae. The forest had Simpson diversity index (D), Shannon-Wiener (H) and Evenness index of 0.012, 0.354 and 0.195 respectively. The total density and basal area of woody plants species in the forest was 1,936.67 individuals’ ha-1 and 98.23 m<sup>2</sup> ha−1. <em>Newbouldia laevis</em> had the highest density of 190 ha-1 and relative frequency of 9.811% while <em>Milicia excelsa</em> had the highest basal area of 40.34 m<sup>2</sup> ha−1, relative dominance of 41.07% and Importance value index of 14.04%. The study concludes that the forest has a reasonably good tree and shrub species composition and richness, dominated by trees and a repository of many indigenous tropical woody plant species. The study recommends in-depth forest inventory, preparation of management plan and promotion of good governance in management of the forest. Also, further studies on regeneration, structure, soil seed bank, seed physiology and herbaceous plant should be carried out in the forest.</p> Ariyo, Oluyinka Christopher ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-03-20 2020-03-20 63 78 10.9734/jeai/2020/v42i230470 Phytochemical Screening and Betaxanthines of Pilosocereus catingicola (Gürke) Byles & Rowley Subsp. salvadorensis (Werderm.) Zappi (Cactaceae) http://www.journaljeai.com/index.php/JEAI/article/view/30471 <p>In the semiarid region of northeastern Brazil, we find several cacti that are very important for the regional fauna and flora, including the “facheiro” (<em>Pilosocereus catingicola</em> (Gürke) Byles &amp; Rowley subsp. <em>salvadorensis</em> (Werderm.) Zappi, a species that belongs to this botanical family and is widespread in the Paraiba semiarid region. The objective of this study was quantify and characterize the chemical constituents of the fruits and cladodes of <em>Pilosocereus catingicola</em> subsp. <em>salvadorensis</em>. The fruits were lyophilized and the samples were subsequently ground. A 2 gram aliquot of the lyophilized material was solubilized in 5 mL of 50% MeOH and 50 mmol L<sup>-1</sup> of sodium ascorbate and distilled water. The extractive content was monitored by absorbance in a UV-VIS Meter<sup>®</sup> SP2000 (600 nm) spectrophotometer. Analyzes were performed using the SAS<sup>®</sup> Program (North Carolina, USA), version 9.2. The constituent groups identified on the stem were the phenolic and tannin groups: steroids, tannins, flavonoids, and saponins. Betalains are the group of alkaloids of greater expression in the fruits of this species, from which the betaxanthines are its main constituents, such as vulgaxanthin III, muscarine and dopaxanthin. <em>Pilosocereus catingicola</em> is a potential source of these metabolites in different parts of the plant, which, therefore, justifies encouraging the best employment of the species.</p> Rodrigo Garcia Silva Nascimento Ana Paula Pereira do Nascimento Fabiana dos Anjos Barbosa João Henrique Constantino Sales Silva Alex da Silva Barbosa ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-03-25 2020-03-25 79 86 10.9734/jeai/2020/v42i230471 Optimization of Zinc and Boron Levels for Better Growth and Yield of Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) http://www.journaljeai.com/index.php/JEAI/article/view/30472 <p>A pot experiment was conducted at the net house of the Department of Agricultural Chemistry, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh during the period of November, 2017 to March, 2018 to optimize different levels of Zn and B for better growth and yield attributes of tomato (cv. <em>Ruma VF</em>). The experiment included two factors [factor- A viz., control (Zn<sub>0</sub> ), Zn @ 4.0 kg ha<sup>-1 </sup>(Zn<sub>4</sub>), <sup>&nbsp;</sup>Zn @ 6.0 kg ha<sup>-1</sup> (Zn<sub>6</sub>) and Zn @ 8.0 kg ha<sup>-1</sup> (Zn<sub>8</sub>) and factor B viz., control (B<sub>0</sub>), B @ 2.0 kg ha<sup>-1</sup> (B<sub>2</sub>) and B @ 3.0 kg ha<sup>-1</sup> (B<sub>3</sub>)], which was laid out in a completely randomized block design with 4 replications, thus total number of pots were 48. Zinc sulphate and boric acid were applied as the source of Zn and B that were applied during pot preparation along with recommended doses of N, P, K and S. The study revealed that application of different doses of Zn increased number of flower clusters plant<sup>-1</sup> at 80 days after transplanting, fruit length, fruit diameter, number of fruits plant<sup>-1</sup> and yield of tomato up to 4.0 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>. Similarly, application of B @ 2.0 kg ha<sup>-1</sup> produced the highest number of flower clusters plant<sup>-1</sup>, fruit length and fruit diameter. On the other hand, the highest number of fruits plant<sup>-1</sup> and yield of tomato were obtained by the application of B @ 3.0 kg ha<sup>-1</sup> which was statistically similar to the application of B @ 2.0 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>. Combined application of Zn and B, @ 4.0 and 2.0 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>, respectively appeared as the best practice for better growth and yield of tomato, and therefore it may be recommended to boost up tomato productivity.</p> Supti Mallick H. M. Zakir M. S. Alam ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-03-25 2020-03-25 87 96 10.9734/jeai/2020/v42i230472 Genotype x Environment Interactions in Sugarcane under Irrigation for Agronomic Traits at Advanced Screening Stage in Ferké, Northern Ivory Coast http://www.journaljeai.com/index.php/JEAI/article/view/30473 <p><strong>Background:</strong> The selection procedure of commercial sugarcane varieties introduced in Ivory Coast involves two different stages. Four varieties pre-selected at the first stage regarding a previous trial were due to be tested at the advanced stage.</p> <p><strong>Aims: </strong>The study aimed to determine the best performing sugarcane genotypes at the advanced selection stage under sprinkler irrigation, in comparison with to two check varieties (R579, SP70-1006).</p> <p><strong>Methodology: </strong>The same field experiment was carried out on two different locations in Ferké 2 sugar estate of Northern Ivory Coast. The experimental design used was a randomized complete block (RCB) with six cane genotypes in four replications. Every plot consisted of five dual rows of ten meters with 0.5 and 1.90 m of inter-row spacing, i.e. 95 m² per plot and about 3000 m² for each experiment. Both experiments were conducted over two seasons (plant cane and first ratoon) as early-season crops from early November, 2017 to mid-December, 2019. Over each micro-plot, data based on different agro-morphological traits were collected at harvest from three central dual rows<em>. </em></p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The study showed that most relevant traits in genotype clustering were related to juice quality (recoverable sucrose, sucrose content, purity), yields and yield components (Millable stalk number/ha, stalk height, stalk diameter, internode number). Based on sugar yields, two genotypes (N47, ECU01) superior to both check varieties were found promising with, respectively, 13.7 and 13.5 t sugar/ha. Their cane yield performances gave 124 and 123 t/ha, respectively, compared to 126.8 t/ha for the best performing check.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> Not only sugar yield, but also flowering rate, stem borer infestation rate, stalk diameter, average stalk height and the number of tillers per hectare were found as the most relevant agronomic traits in the genetic variation of sugarcane genotypes tested. It came out also that GxE interactions were highly significant for five different traits, namely, cane and sugar yields, stalk borer infestation rate, fiber content and the average stalk height.</p> Crépin B. Péné Yavo Michael Béhou ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-03-26 2020-03-26 97 115 10.9734/jeai/2020/v42i230473 Micronutrient Delivery System for Induction of Organogenesis in Banana in vitro Cultures http://www.journaljeai.com/index.php/JEAI/article/view/30474 <p>Micropropagation techniques represent one of the technologies, which allows the large-scale production of banana and the culture medium composition is one of the major factors affecting <em>in vitro</em> propagation of plants. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of a new micronutrient delivery system based on ionic Cu and Zn for inducing <em>in vitro</em> organogenesis in two banana cultivars in vitro cultures, Grand Naine and Pysang Ceylon. The first experiment evaluated different concentrations of BAM-FX<sup>® </sup>(0.16, 0.32, 0.64, 1.28, and 2.56 µl ml<sup>-1</sup>) added to the MS culture medium. The concentration of 0.16 µl ml<sup>-1</sup> BAM-FX<sup>®</sup> provided the best results for <em>in vitro</em> shoot and root growth and development. Therefore, a second experiment was performed to evaluate the potential of combining BAM-FX<sup>®</sup> with a reduced concentration of MS medium (¼, ½, and ¾ strength), or the use of BAM-FX<sup>®</sup> alone without MS medium. Results indicate that MS at ¾ strength combined with 0.16 µl ml<sup>-1</sup> BAM-FX<sup>®</sup> provided proper <em>in vitro</em> shoot and root growth and development. The use of BAM-FX<sup>®</sup> <em>in vitro</em> requires additional studies to verify the feasibility of this product for efficient micropropagation of banana, as well as for other species.</p> Luciana Cardoso Nogueira Londe Wagner A. Vendrame Alexandre Bosco de Oliveira Maurício Mendes Cardoso ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-03-27 2020-03-27 116 124 10.9734/jeai/2020/v42i230474