Journal of Experimental Agriculture International <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Journal of Experimental Agriculture International (ISSN:&nbsp;2457-0591)</strong>&nbsp;is a multidisciplinary journal in the field of agriculture and biology. The journal publishes original scientific papers, short communications, review articles and case studies. This is a quality controlled, OPEN peer reviewed, open access INTERNATIONAL journal.</p> SCIENCEDOMAIN international en-US Journal of Experimental Agriculture International 2457-0591 Effects of Integrated Use of Calliandra calothyrsus and Maize Stover with Urea on Soil Mineral Nitrogen, Striga Infestation and Maize Yields in Western Kenya <p>This study investigated the effects of applying different combinations of two contrasting plant residues, <em>Calliandra calothyrsus</em> (Calliandra) and maize stover, with urea on<em> Striga</em> infestation and maize yield in western Kenya. A randomized complete block design (RCBD) with 12 treatments replicated four times was used. The following plant residue: urea combinations was used so as to supply a total of 75 kg ha<sup>-1 </sup>in each treatment combination; 75:0, 60:15, 45:30, 30:45, 15:60, and 0:75 for five seasons (2007-2009). A control treatment where no nutrient inputs were applied was included. Calliandra applied at 45 kg N ha<sup>-1 </sup>plus urea (30 kg N ha<sup>-1</sup>) and maize stover applied 15 kg N ha<sup>-1 </sup>plus urea (60 kg N ha<sup>-1</sup>) had consistently lower <em>Striga</em> infestation compared other treatments. Negative linear relationship between maize yield and <em>Striga</em> population were observed in the first three seasons i.e. 2007 LR, 2007 SR and 2008 LR. Overall mean maize grain yields over the five seasons were highest (3.0 t ha<sup>-1</sup>) under maize stover (30 kg N ha<sup>-1</sup>) combined with urea (45 kg N ha<sup>-1</sup>) followed by Calliandra (45 kg N ha<sup>-1</sup>) combined with urea (30 kg N ha<sup>-1</sup>) with (2.7 t ha<sup>-1</sup>). Maize stover (30 kg N ha<sup>-1</sup>) in combination with urea (45 kg N ha<sup>-1</sup>) increased maize grain yields relative to the control by 275%, 107% and 155% in the first, second and third seasons respectively. Treatments with Calliandra (45 kg N ha<sup>-1</sup>) in combination with urea (30 kg N ha<sup>-1</sup>) increased maize grain yields relative to the control by 191%, and 233% in the first and third seasons respectively. The control and sole maize stover (75 kg N ha<sup>-1</sup>) had the lowest yields across all the seasons. The optimum application rate for stover was 30 kg N ha<sup>-1</sup> nitrogen equivalent while that for Calliandra was 45 kg N ha<sup>-1</sup>.</p> Robert O. Nyambati Duncan G. Odhiamboz Cornelius K. Serrem Caleb O. Othieno Frank S. Mairura ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-02-06 2020-02-06 1 11 10.9734/jeai/2020/v42i130446 Species Composition and Status of Stored Sorghum Pests in Traditional Farmer’s Storages of Kena District of Koso Zone, Southern Ethiopia <p><strong>Aim: </strong>To determine the species composition and status pests of stored sorghum under traditional storages of farmers in Kenna district of Konso Zone of Southern Ethiopia.</p> <p><strong>Study Design:</strong> From peasant association, about three sub-localities were randomly selected and from each sub-locality, three villages were selected at random with using a nested design.</p> <p><strong>Place and Duration of Study:</strong> Survey was conducted between 1, August to 27, December 2019 in four major sorghum growing peasant association of Kenna district of Southern Ethiopia.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> The study on determination of the species composition and status pests of stored sorghum was made from of half kilogram of wheat grain sample taken from 720 stores of randomly selected representative farmer’s storages of four peasant associations using key of books related to stored product insects.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Fifteen arthropods species consisting of twelve primary and secondary pests and three natural enemies belonging to four insect orders with in nine families were recorded. Of which, nine species such as <em>S. zeamais</em>, <em>S. oryzae</em>, <em>S. cerealella</em>, <em>T. castaneum</em>, <em>T. confusum</em>, <em>C. ferrugineus</em>, &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<em>C. pusillus,</em> <em>R. dominica</em> and <em>P. interpunctella</em>, respectively were found to be the most abundant as they appeared between 3.47 and 19.44 individuals per 100 g of sampled grains. They were also found to be the most frequently occurring as they occurred in the range between 63.89 and 94.44% per 100 g of sample grain collected from survey site and had major pest status.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>The traditional methods and practices used by farmers were inefficient for providing adequate protection of their stored sorghum grain pests. Therefore, there is urgent need for designing effective management strategies against insect pest’s sorghum as well as improving the existing farmer’s traditional storage strictures in the survey site in order to reduce the loss of stored sorghum by insect pests and the associated food insecurity.</p> Ararso Gognsha Berhanu Hiruy ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-02-07 2020-02-07 12 22 10.9734/jeai/2020/v42i130447 Biological, Serological and Molecular Characterisation of a New Virus Species Infecting Telfairia occidentalis in Calabar, Cross River State, Nigeria <p><em>Telfairia occidentalis</em> (Hook) belongs to the family Cucurbitaceae and is an economically important cash crop worldwide. It is widely cultivated in Nigeria including the South Eastern part of the country. This research was aimed at isolating, characterising and identifying a new virus species infecting <em>Telfairia occidentalis</em> in Calabar, Cross River State. Diagnostic tools employed included host range/symptomatology, insect transmission test, Antigen Coated Plate (ACP) Enzyme Linked-Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) and gene sequencing. Results revealed that the virus isolate infected only members of the cucurbit family producing rugosity, mosaic, mottle and leaf malformation/deformation. The virus isolate was transmitted by <em>Aphis spiraecola </em>in a fore-gut manner and not by <em>A. citricida</em>. It reacted positively against universal potyvirus antiserum. Sequence analysis showed that the <em>Telfairia</em> <em>occidentalis</em> virus isolate had 75% sequence identity with <em>Moroccan watermelon mosaic virus</em> (MWM) which was found to be the closest. The virus was consequently considered a new species of potyvirus for which the name Telfairia severe mosaic virus (TeSMV) was suggested.</p> O. I. Eyong A. T. Owolabi A. A. J. Mofunanya E. E. Ekpiken ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-02-12 2020-02-12 23 33 10.9734/jeai/2020/v42i130448 Chlorophyll a Fluorescence Parameters do not Detect Yield-limiting Injury from Sub-lethal Rates of 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic Acid (2,4-D) in Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) <p><strong>Aims: </strong>Determine if the use of novel chlorophyll a fluorescence parameters could be utilized to predict yield loss of cotton exposed to sublethal rates of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) at various growth stages.</p> <p><strong>Study Design:</strong> All trials were arranged in a randomized complete block design with four replications. Treatment means were subjected to analysis of variance and linear regression was utilized to determine relationship between chlorophyll a parameters and yield.</p> <p><strong>Place and Duration of Study:</strong> University of Georgia Gibbs Farm in Tifton, GA, USA and the Sunbelt Agricultural Exposition in Moultrie, GA, USA during the 2013 growing season.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> Two sublethal rates of 2,4-D were applied to cotton at six distinct growth stages. The rates consisted of 2 g and 40 g ae ha<sup>-1</sup> equivalent to 1/421 and 1/21 of the full rate (0.532 kg ae ha<sup>-1</sup>), respectively. The sublethal rates were applied to cotton at six growth stages, including the four leaf, nine leaf, first bloom, two, four and six weeks after first bloom growth stages. A fluorometer was used to obtain the fluorescence parameters F<sub>v</sub>/F<sub>m</sub>, Φ<sub>EO</sub> and PI<sub>ABS </sub>from the uppermost fully expanded leaves at various intervals after 2,4-D exposure.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Despite yield losses ranging from 20 – 90% of the non-treated control, no consistent patterns resulted from utilizing fluorescence transients to detect 2,4-D injury and overall instances of significant difference were minimal and typically not biologically relevant. In many cases, treatments exposed to 2,4-D that exhibited yield loss showed evidence of greater photosynthetic efficiency than the non-treated control. In the majority of instances, many of fluorescence parameters measured fell within ranges observed in previous studies in cotton produced under typical or non-stressed conditions.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> While it has been proven as a valuable tool in other plant screening endeavors, chlorophyll a fluorescence were not able to detect the effects of sub-lethal rates of 2,4-D on cotton, even in instances that resulted in severe yield loss.</p> Seth A. Byrd John L. Snider Timothy L. Grey A. Stanley Culpepper Jared R. Whitaker Phillip M. Roberts Daryl R. Chastain Wesley M. Porter Guy D. Collins ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-02-12 2020-02-12 34 48 10.9734/jeai/2020/v42i130449 Effectiveness of Azospirillum brasilense Inoculants to Wheat (Triticum aestivum) in the Micro-region of Curitibanos (SC) <p><strong>Aims: </strong>This work aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of <em>A. brasilense </em>inoculants to the development of wheat at the southern part of Brazil.</p> <p><strong>Study Design:</strong> The experimental design was randomized block with twelve treatments, containing two liquid inoculants with the <em>A. brasilense</em> strains Ab-V5 and Ab-V6, with or without nitrogen fertilization and five replicates. The plot area was 4m per 6m and thirty-two rows. The seeds inoculation was performed according to the manufacturer's recommendation, and manual sowing. The top-dressing N fertilization was Urea (Super N- 45%N) at 20 days after emergence (DAE), at 120 kg ha<sup>-1</sup> (full dosage) or 60 kg ha<sup>-1</sup> (half dosage).</p> <p><strong>Place and Duration of Study: </strong>The experiment was performed in a farm in Curitibanos county in Santa Catarina state, Brazil. The experiment was carried out on July to November 2016.</p> <p><strong>Methodology: </strong>At 45 DAE, it was performed flag leaves N content Tedesco, et al. [1]. At 115 DAE, it was performed dry shoot weight, plant height, ear sizes, grain N contents and grain yield. The results were submitted to variance analysis (ANOVA) and media compared by Scott-Knot's test at 5% of significance.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>There was no statistical difference for shoot dry weight, plant height, ear size and yield. The N leaf content was greater with Ab-V5 inoculation and half N dosage (HC5 - 109% higher than the control). The N grain content was greater with the two strains (inoculant B) without, half and full N dosage (WC56 - 51%, HCB56 - 76% and CB56 - 65%, respectively).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong><em>A. brasilense </em>strains had the ability to increase wheat N accumulation with lower N fertilizing, suggesting their potential as growth inducers, emphasizing the importance of further studies to confirm and understand the mechanisms involved.</p> William Gilberto Balbinot André Luis Gordechuk Géssica Rogaleski Eutrópio Cibele Medeiros Glória Regina Botelho ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-02-15 2020-02-15 49 55 10.9734/jeai/2020/v42i130450 Study on Rice Residue Management Options on Growth Parameters and Growth Indices of Rice Crop <p>The research was conducted to study the effect of management options for combine harvested rice residue and its effect on succeeding rice crop growth responses. The experiment was laid out in field using a randomized block design with nine treatments and replicated three times. The computed biometric data were subjected to statistical scrutiny.&nbsp; Incorporation of combine harvested rice residue with 25 kg additional N ha<sup>-1</sup> as basal + bio-mineralizer (2 kg t<sup>-1</sup> of rice residue) and cow dung slurry (5%) recorded higher plant height, number of tillers, dry matter production (DMP), leaf area index (LAI), crop growth rate (CGR) and relative growth rate (RGR) of the succeeding rice irrespective of the growth stages. It was closely followed by straw incorporation with 25 kg additional N ha<sup>-1</sup> as basal + cow dung slurry (5%). Incorporation of straw alone and removal of straw negatively influenced the rice growth and growth indices. Hence, it is advisable to incorporation of rice residue with additives for better growth and growth indices of rice crop.</p> A. Vijayaprabhakar S. Nalliah Durairaj M. Hemalatha M. Joseph ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-02-15 2020-02-15 56 63 10.9734/jeai/2020/v42i130451 Correlation and Path Coefficient Analysis for Yield and Yield Components in Late Maturing Pro-vitamin A Synthetic Maize (Zea mays L.) Breeding Lines <p>This study was conducted in a rainforest ecology of Southwestern Nigeria during 2016 and 2017 cropping seasons under rainfed conditions to estimate character association and path coefficient of grain yield (t ha<sup>-1</sup>) and its component characters, to identify characters whose selection could be used in improving maize grain yield (t ha<sup>-1</sup>). Fourteen late-maturing pro-vitamin A maize (PVAM) synthetics were conducted in a randomized complete block design with three replications. The following agronomic characters were recorded: plant stands per plot, days to 50% tasselling, days to 50% silking, anthesis-silking interval, plant height (cm), ear height (cm), number of ears harvested, field weight (kg), and grain yield (t ha<sup>-1</sup>). In both 2016 and 2017, plant stands per plot, the number of ears harvested and field weight (kg) correlated positively and significantly with grain yield (t ha<sup>-1</sup>) at the phenotypic and genotypic levels. Also, in both years, positive and significant phenotypic and genotypic correlations were found for plant stands per plot with number of ears harvested and field weight (kg), days to 50% tasselling with days to 50% silking, plant height (cm) with ear height (cm) and number of ears harvested with field weight (kg). Path analysis for both years at the phenotypic and genotypic levels identified field weight (kg) and the number of ears harvested to have a positive direct effect on grain yield (t ha<sup>-1</sup>), an indication that optimum plant population per plot is paramount to increasing grain yield (t ha<sup>-1</sup>). Hence, the number of ears harvested and field weight (kg) are characters that could be considered in the improvement of maize grain yield (t ha<sup>-1</sup>).</p> David Oluwagbenga Olawamide Lawrence Stephen Fayeun ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-02-15 2020-02-15 64 72 10.9734/jeai/2020/v42i130452